Simplify SSH login with config file¶
In the quick start guide you used a lengthy command
ssh -i "xx.pem" email@example.com to login. To copy files by
scp, the command would be even longer:
scp -i "xx.pem" local_file firstname.lastname@example.org:~/
Fortunately, those commands can be simplified to
ssh ec2 and
scp local_file ec2:~/, skipping the Key Pair argument
-i "xx.pem" and even the EC2 address.
Set up SSH config file¶
For example, say the full ssh command is:
ssh -i "~/.ssh/my-aws-key.pem" email@example.com
Just open the file
~/.ssh/config (create it if doesn’t exist), and enter the following content. Then you will be able to use the shortcuts.
Host ec2 Hostname ec2-35-169-93-188.compute-1.amazonaws.com user ubuntu IdentityFile ~/.ssh/my-aws-key.pem Port 22
“Host” is the shortcut you want to use in
scp commands. “user”, “IdentityFile” (EC2 Key Pair), and “Port” (always 22 for
ssh) are almost never changed for different EC2 instances. So you only need to change “Hostname” every time you have a new instance.
Enable port forwarding¶
Port forwarding for Jupyter can be done as usual:
ssh ec2 -L 8999:localhost:8999
Or can be also included in
~/.ssh/config so you simply need
Host ec2 Hostname ec2-35-169-93-188.compute-1.amazonaws.com user ubuntu IdentityFile ~/.ssh/my-aws-key.pem Port 22 LocalForward 8999 localhost:8999
For multiple servers¶
You can add multiple entries for multiple EC2 instances. Say you’ve launched a bigger instance in addition to the existing one:
Host ec2 Hostname ec2-35-169-93-188.compute-1.amazonaws.com user ubuntu IdentityFile ~/.ssh/my-aws-key.pem Port 22 Host ec2-big Hostname xxxxx.com user ubuntu IdentityFile ~/.ssh/my-aws-key.pem Port 22
- Note that if you stop and then re-start an EC2 instance, its address will change. The address can be fixed by AWS Elastic IP, but I find that modifying “Hostname” in
~/.ssh/configis generally quicker.
- Our tutorial AMI is based on Ubuntu, thus the user name. Other operating systems would have different user names.
- There are similar tutorials for SSH Config online.